(continued)… internal divisions, most.of the CUD party leaders have established the new Unity for Democracy and Justice party led by Judge Birtukan Mideksa . A member of the country’s Oromo ethnic group, Ms. Birtukan Mideksa is the first woman to lead a political party in Ethiopia.
As of 2008, the top five opposition parties are the Unity for Democracy and Justice led by Judge Birtukan Mideksa , United Ethiopian Democratic Forces led by Dr. Beyene Petros , Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement ledby Dr. Bulcha Demeksa , Oromo People’s Congress led by Dr. Merera Gudina, and United Ethiopian Democratic Party-Medhin Party led by Lidetu Ayalew .
Regions, zones, and districts
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Main articles: Regions of Ethiopia , Zones of Ethiopia , and Districts of Ethiopia
Before 1996, Ethiopia wasdivided into 13 provinces , many derived from historical regions. Ethiopia now has a tiered government system consisting of a federal government overseeing ethnically based regional countries, zones, districts ( woredas ), and neighborhoods ( kebele ).
Ethiopia is divided into nine ethnically based administrative countries ( kililoch , sing. kilil ) and subdivided into sixty-eight zones and two chartered cities ( astedader akababiwoch , sing. astedader akababi ): Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa (subdivisions 1 and 5 in the map, respectively). It is further subdivided into 550 woredas and several special woredas .
The constitution assigns extensive power to regional states that can establish their own government and democracy according to the federal government’s constitution. Each region has its apex regional council where members are directly elected to represent the districts and the council has legislative and executive power to direct internal affairs of the regions. Article 39 of the Ethiopian Constitution further gives every regional state the right to secede from Ethiopia. There is debate, however,as to how much of the power guaranteed in the constitution is actually given to the states. The councils implement their mandate through an executive committee andregional sectoral bureaus. Such elaborate structure of council, executive, and sectoral public institutions is replicated to the next level (woreda).
The nine regions and two chartered cities (in italics) are:
1. Addis Ababa
5. Dire Dawa
5. Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People’s Region
[ edit ] Geography
Main article: Geography of Ethiopia
Map of Ethiopia.
At 435,071 square miles (1,126,829 km 2 ), [ 84 ] Ethiopia is the world’s 27th-largest country. It is comparable in size to Bolivia . It lies between latitudes 3° and 15°N , and longitudes 33° and 48°E .
The major portion of Ethiopia lies on the Horn of Africa , which is the easternmost part of the African landmass. Bordering Ethiopia are Sudan and South Sudan to the west, Djibouti and Eritrea to the north, Somalia to the east, and Kenya to the south. Within Ethiopia is a vast highland complex of mountains and dissected plateaus divided by the Great Rift Valley , which runs generally southwestto northeast and is surrounded by lowlands, steppes , or semi-desert. The great diversity of terrain determines wide variations in climate, soils, natural vegetation, and settlement patterns.
Ethiopia is an ecologically diverse country, ranging from the deserts along the eastern border to the tropical forests in the south to extensive Afromontane in the northern and southwestern parts. Lake Tana in the north is the source of the Blue Nile . It also has a large number of endemic species , notably the Gelada Baboon , the Walia Ibex and the Ethiopian wolf (or Simien fox ). The wide range of altitude has given the country a variety of ecologically distinct areas, this has helped to encourage the evolution of endemic species in ecological isolation.
[ edit ] Climate
Main article: Climate of Ethiopia
The predominant climate type is tropical monsoon, with wide topographic-induced variation. The Ethiopian Highlands which cover most of the country have a climate which is generally considerably cooler than other regions at similar proximity to the Equator. Most of the country’s major cities are located at elevations of around 2,000–2,500 metres (6,562–8,202 ft) above sea level, including historic capitals such as Gondar and Axum.
The modern capital Addis Ababa is situated on the foothills of Mount Entoto at an elevation of around 2,400 metres (7,874 ft), and experiences a healthy and pleasant climate year round. With fairly uniform year round temperatures, the seasons in Addis Ababa are largely defined by rainfall, with a dry seasonfrom October–February, a light rainy season from March–May, and a heavy rainy season from June–September. The average annual rainfall is around 1,200 mm (47.2 in). There are on average 7 hours of sunshine per day, meaning it is sunny for around 60% of the available time. The dry season is the sunniest time of the year, though even at the height of the rainy season in July and August there are still usually several hours per day of bright sunshine. The average annual temperature in Addis Ababa is 16 °C (60.8 °F) , with daily maximum temperatures averaging 20–25 °C (68–77 °F) throughout the year, and overnight lows averaging 5–10 °C (41–50 °F).
Most major cities and tourist sites in Ethiopia lie at a similar elevation to Addis Ababa and have acomparable climate. In less elevated regions, particularly the lower lying Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands in the east of the country, the climate can be significantly hotter and drier. Dallol, in the Danakil Depression in this eastern zone, has the world’s highest average annual temperature of 34 °C (93.2 °F) .
[ edit ] Environment
See also: Environmental issues in Ethiopia
[ edit ] Wildlife
Main article: Wildlife of Ethiopia
The Ethiopian Wolf
Ethiopia has 31 endemic species of mammals. [ 85 ] The African Wild Dog prehistorically had widespread distribution in Ethiopia; however, with last sightings at Fincha , this canid is thought to be potentially extirpated within Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Wolf is perhaps the most researched of all the endangered species within Ethiopia.
Historically, throughout the African continent , wildlife populations have been rapidly declining owing to logging, civil wars, pollution, poaching and other human interference. [ 86 ] A 17-year-long civil war along with severe drought, negatively impacted Ethiopia’s environmental conditionsleading to even greater habitat degradation. [ 87 ] Habitat destruction is a factor that leads to endangerment. When changes to a habitat occur rapidly, animals do not have time to adjust. Human impact threatens many species, with greater threats expectedas a result of climate change induced by greenhouse gas emissions. [ 88 ]
Ethiopia has a large number of species listed as critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable to global extinction. The threatened species in Ethiopia can be broken down into three categories (based on IUCN ratings); Critically Endangered , Endangered , and Vulnerable . [ 85 ]
Critically endangered mammals [ 89 ] Endangered mammals Vulnerable mammals
Bilen Gerbil Grevy’s Zebra African Elephant Large-eared Free-tailed Bat Red-fronted Gazelle
Black Rhinoceros Mountain Nyala Ammodile Lesser Horseshoe Bat Rupp’s Mouse
Ethiopian Wolf Nubian Ibex Bailey’s Shrew Lion Scott’s Mouse-eared Bat
Guramba Shrew African Wild Dog Bale Shrew Moorland Shrew Soemmerring’s Gazelle
Harenna Shrew Beira Antelope Morris’s Bat Speke’s Gazelle
MacMillan’s Shrew Cheetah Mouse-tailed Bat species Spotted-necked Otter
Walia Ibex Dibatag Natal Free-Tailed Bat Stripe-backed Mouse
Dorcas Gazelle Nikolaus’s Mouse
Glass’s Shrew Patrizi’s Trident Leaf-nosed Bat
[ edit ] Deforestation
Main article: Environmental issues in Ethiopia
Deforestation is a major concern for Ethiopia as studies suggest loss of forest contributes to soilerosion, loss of nutrients in the soil, loss of animal habitats and reduction in biodiversity. At the beginning of the 20th century around 420 000 km² or 35% of Ethiopia’s land was covered by trees but recent researchindicates that forest cover is now approximately 11.9% of the area. [ 90 ] Ethiopia is one of the seven fundamental and independent centers of origin of cultivated plants of the world.
Ethiopia loses an estimated 1 410 km² of natural forests each year. Between 1990 and 2005 the country lost approximately 21 000 km². [ citation needed ]
Current government programs to control deforestation consist of education, promoting reforestation programs and providing alternate raw material to timber. In rural areas the government also providesnon-timber fuel sources and access to non-forested land to promote agriculture without destroying forest habitat.
Organizations such as SOS and Farm Africa are working with the federal government and local governments to create a system of forest management. [ 91 ] Workingwith a grant of approximately 2.3 million euros the Ethiopian government recently began training people on reducing erosion and using proper irrigation techniques that do not contribute to deforestation. This project is assisting more than 80 communities.
[ edit ] Economy
Main article: Economy of Ethiopia
See also: Foreign aid to Ethiopia
Ethiopia was the fastest-growing non-oil-dependent African economy in the years 2007 and 2008. [ 92 ] In spite of fast growth in recent years, GDP per capita is one of the lowest in the world, and the economy faces a number of serious structural problems. There have been efforts for reform since 1991, butthe scope of reform is modest. Agricultural productivity remains low,and frequent droughts still beset the country. [ 93 ] The effectiveness of these policies is reflected in the ten-percent yearly economic growth from 2003–2008. Despite these economic improvements, urban and rural poverty remains an issue in the country.
The Ethiopian Commercial Bank in AddisAbeba .
Ethiopia is often ironically referred to as the “water tower” of Eastern Africa because ofthe many (14 major) rivers that pour off the high tableland. It also hasthe greatest water reserves in Africa, but few irrigation systems in place to use it. Just 1% is used for power production and 1.5% for irrigation. [ 94 ]
Historically, Ethiopia’s feudal and communist economic structure has always kept it one rainless season away from devastating droughts. Ethiopia has great potential to be a producer, as it is one of the most fertile countries in Africa. According to the New York Times, Ethiopia”could easily become the breadbasket for much of Europe if her agriculture were better organized.” [ citation needed ]
Provision of telecommunications services is left to a state-owned monopoly. It is the view of the current government that maintaining state ownership in this vital sector is essential to ensure that telecommunication infrastructures and services are extended to rural Ethiopia, which would not be attractive to private enterprises.
The Ethiopian constitution defines the right to own land as belonging only to “the state and the people”, but citizens may only lease land (up to 99 years), and are unable to mortgage or sell. Renting of land for a maximum of twenty years is allowed and this is expected to ensure that land goes to the most productive user.
Agriculture accounts for almost 41 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP), 80 percent of exports, and 80 percent of the labour force. [ citation needed ] Many other economic activities depend on agriculture, including marketing, processing, and export of agricultural products. Production is overwhelmingly by small-scale farmers and enterprises and a large part of commodity exports are provided by the small agricultural cash-crop sector. Principal crops include coffee , pulses ( e.g., beans), oilseeds , cereals , potatoes, sugarcane , and vegetables. Recently, Ethiopia has had a fast-growing annual GDP and it was thefastest-growing non-oil-dependent African nation in 2007. [ 95 ] [ 96 ] Exports are almost entirely agricultural commodities,and coffee is the largest foreign exchange earner. Ethiopia is Africa’s second biggest maize producer. [ 97 ] Ethiopia’s livestock population is believed to be the largestin Africa, and as of 1987 accounted for about 15 percent of the GDP. [ citation needed ] According toa recent UN report the GNPper capita of Ethiopia hasreached $1541 (2009). [ citation needed ] The same report indicated that the life expectancy had improved substantially inrecent years. The life expectancy of men is reported to be 56 years and for women 60 years.
[ edit ] Exports
Ethiopia produces more coffee than any other country in Africa. [ 98 ] Coffee was domesticated in Ethiopia. [ citation needed ]
Ethiopia is also the 10th largest producer of livestock in the world. Other main export commodities are khat , gold, leather products, and oilseeds. Recent development of the floriculture sector meansEthiopia is poised to become one of the top flower and plant exporters in the world. [ 99 ]
Coffee farmer filling cups with coffee.
Exports from Ethiopia in the 2009/2010 financial year totaled $US1.4 billion. Neighbouring Kenya with half of Ethiopia’s population exported goods worth US$5 billion during the same period. [ 100 ]
Cross-border trade by pastoralists is often informal and beyond state control and regulation. However, in East Africa , over 95% of cross-border trade is through unofficial channels and the unofficial trade of live cattle, camels, sheep andgoats from Ethiopia sold to Somalia , Kenya and Djibouti generates an estimated total value of between US$250 and US$300 million annually (100 times more than the official figure). [ 101 ] This trade helps lower food prices, increase food security, relieve border tensions and promote regional integration. [ 101 ] However, there are also risks as the unregulated and undocumented nature of this trade runs risks, such as allowing disease to spread more easily across national borders. Furthermore, thegovernment of Ethiopia ispurportedly unhappy withlost tax revenue and foreign exchange revenues. [ 101 ] Recent initiatives have sought to document and regulatethis trade. [ 101 ]
With the private sector growing slowly, designer leather products like bags are becoming a big export business, with Taytu becoming the first luxury designer label in the country. [ 102 ] Additional small-scale export products include cereals, pulses, cotton, sugarcane, potatoes and hides. With the construction of various new dams and growing hydroelectric power projects around the country, Ethiopia also plans to export electric power to its neighbors. [ 103 ] [ 104 ] However, coffee remains its most important export productand with new trademark deals around the world, including recent deals with Starbucks , the country plans to increaseits revenue from coffee. [ 105 ] Most regard Ethiopia’s large water resources and potential as its “white oil” and its coffee resources as”black gold”. [ 106 ] [ 107 ]
The country also has large mineral resources and oil potential in some of the less inhabited regions. Political instability in those regions, however, has inhibited development. Ethiopian geologists were implicated in a major gold swindle in 2008. Four chemists and geologists from the Ethiopian Geological Survey were arrested in connection with a fake gold scandal, following complaints from buyers in South Africa. Gold bars from the National Bank of Ethiopia were found to begilded metal by police, costing the state around US$17 million, according to the Science and Development Network website. [ 108 ]
[ edit ] Transportation
Main article: Transportation in Ethiopia
Ethiopia has 681 km of railway that mainly consists of the Addis Ababa – Djibouti Railway , with a 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3 ⁄ 8 in) narrow gauge . At present the railway is under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia, but negotiations are underway to privatize this transport utility.
As the first part of a 10-year Road Sector Development Program, between 1997 and 2002 the Ethiopian government began a sustained effort to improve its infrastructure of roads. As a result, as of 2002 Ethiopia has a total (Federal and Regional) 33 297 km of roads, both paved and gravel.
[ edit ] Demographics
Main article: Demographics of Ethiopia
See also: People of Ethiopia
Population in Ethiopia [ 109 ]
Population in Ethiopia increased from 1990 to 2008 with 29 million with 57 % growth. [ 109 ] Ethiopia’s population has grown from 33.5 million in 1983 to 75.1 million in 2006. [ 110 ] The populationwas only about 9 million in the 19th century. [ 111 ] The 2007 Population and Housing Census results show that the populationof Ethiopia grew at an average annual rate of 2.6% between 1994 and 2007, down from 2.8% during the period 1983–1994. Currently, thepopulation growth rate is among the top ten countries in the world.
A Habesha baby in the northern Tigray Region .
The country’s population is highly diverse, containing over 80 different ethnic groups. Most people in Ethiopia speak Afro-Asiatic languages , mainly of the Semitic or Cushitic branches. The latter include the Oromo , Amhara , Tigray and Somali , who together make up three-quarters of the population.
Ethiopians and Eritreans, especially Semitic-speaking ones, collectively refer to themselves as Habesha or Abesha , though othersreject these names on the basis that they refer only to certain ethnicities. [ 112 ] The Arabic form of this term (Al-Habasha) is the etymological basis of”Abyssinia,” the former name of Ethiopia in English and other European languages. [ 113 ]
Woman from the Mursi ethnic group, a Nilotic people inhabiting the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People’s Region .
Nilo-Saharan -speaking Nilotic ethnic minorities also inhabit the southern regions of the country, particularly in areas bordering South Sudan . Among these are the Mursi and Anuak .
According to the Ethiopian national census of 2007, the Oromo are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia, at 34.49% of the nation’s population. The Amhara represent 26.89% of the country’s inhabitants, while the Somali and Tigray represent 6.20% and 6.07% of the population, respectively. Other prominent ethnic groups are as follows: Sidama 4.01%, Gurage 2.53%, Wolayta 2.31%, Afar 1.73%, Hadiya 1.74%, Gamo 1.50%, Kefficho 1.18% and others 11%. [ 114 ] [ 115 ]
In 2007, Ethiopia hosted apopulation of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 201,700. The majority of this population came from Somalia (approximately 111,600 persons), Sudan (55,400) and Eritrea (23,900). The Ethiopian government required nearly all refugees to live in refugee camps. [ 116 ]
[ edit ] Languages
Main article: Languages ofEthiopia
Sign in Amharic at the Ethiopian millenniumcelebration.
According to Ethnologue , there are 90 individual languages spoken in Ethiopia. [ 117 ] Most belong to the Afro-Asiatic language family, mainly of the Cushitic and Semitic branches. Languages from the Nilo-Saharan phylum are also spoken by the nation’s Nilotic ethnic minorities.
English is the most widely spoken foreign language and is the medium of instruction in secondary schools. Amharic was the language of primary school instruction, but has been replaced in many areas by regional languages such as Oromifa and Tigrinya .
In terms of writing system , Ethiopia’s principal orthography is Ge’ez or Ethiopic (ግዕዝ). Used as an abugida for several of the country’s languages, it first came into use in the 5th–6th centuries BC as an abjad to transcribe the Semitic Ge’ez language . Ge’ez now serves as the liturgical language of the Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox Churches . Otherwriting systems have also been used over the years by different Ethiopian communities. The latter include Sheikh Bakri Sapalo ‘s script for Oromo.
[ edit ] Religion
Main article: Religion in Ethiopia
Religion in Ethiopia
African traditional religions
The rock-hewn Church of Saint George in Lalibela is a UNESCO World Heritage Site .
Ethiopia has close historical ties with all three of the world’s major Abrahamic religions . It was one of the first areasof the world to have officially adopted Christianity as the state religion, in the 4th century. It still has a Christian majority, with over a third of the population Muslim . Ethiopia is the site of thefirst hijra in Islamic history and the oldest Muslim settlement in Africa at Negash . Until the 1980s, a substantial population of Ethiopian Jews resided in Ethiopia.
According to the 2007 National Census, Christians make up 62.8% of the country’s population (43.5% Ethiopian Orthodox, 19.3% other denominations), Muslims 33.9%, practitioners of traditional faiths 2.6%, and other religions 0.6% [ 114 ] This is in agreement with the updated CIA World Factbook, which states that Christianity is the most widely practiced religion in Ethiopia. According to thelatest CIA factbook figureMuslims constitute 32.8% of the population. [ 118 ]
The Kingdom of Aksum was one of the first nations to officially accept Christianity , when St. Frumentius of Tyre , called Fremnatos orAbba Selama (“Father of Peace”) in Ethiopia, converted King Ezana during the 4th century AD . Many believe that the Gospel had entered Ethiopia even earlier, with the royal official described as being baptised by Philip the Evangelist in chapter eight of the Acts of the Apostles . (Acts 8:26–39) Today, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church , part of Oriental Orthodoxy , is by far the largest denomination, though a number of Protestant ( Pentay ) churches and the Ethiopian Orthodox Tehadeso Church have recently gained ground. Since the 18th century there has existed a relatively small ( uniate ) Ethiopian Catholic Church in full communion with Rome , with adherents making up less than 1% of the total population. [ 114 ]
A mosque in Bahir Dar .
Islam in Ethiopia dates back to the founding of the religion; in 615, when a group of Muslims were counseled by Muhammad to escape persecution in Mecca and travel to Ethiopia via modern day Eritrea , which was ruled by Ashama ibn Abjar , a pious Christian king. Moreover, Bilal ibn Ribah , the first Muezzin , the person chosen to call the faithful to prayer, and one of the foremost companions of Muhammad, was from Abyssinia (Eritrea, Ethiopia etc.). Also, the largest single ethnic group of non-Arab Companions of Muhammad was that of the Ethiopians.
A small ancient group of Jews , the Beta Israel , live in northwestern Ethiopia, though most emigrated to Israel in the last decades of the 20th century as part of the rescue missions undertaken by the Israeli government, Operation Moses and Operation Solomon . [ 119 ] Some Israeli and Jewish scholars consider these Ethiopian Jews as a historical Lost Tribe of Israel .
There are numerous indigenous African religions in Ethiopia, mainly located in the far southwest and western borderlands. In general, most of the (largely members of the non-Chalcedonian Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church ) Christians live in the highlands, while Muslims and adherents of traditional African religions tend to inhabit more lowland regions in the east and south of thecountry.
[ edit ] Calendar
Main article: Ethiopian calendar
Ethiopia has several localcalendars. The most widely-known is the Ethiopian calendar , also known as the Ge’ez calendar. It is based on the older Alexandrian or Coptic calendar , which in turn derives from the Egyptian calendar . However, like the Julian calendar , the Ethiopian calendar adds a leap day every four years without exception, and begins theyear on August 29 or August 30 in the Julian calendar. A seven to eight-year gap between the Ethiopian and Gregorian calendars results from alternate calculations.
Another prominent calendrical system was developed by the Oromo around 300 BC. A lunar-stellar calendar, it relies on astronomical observations of the moonin conjunction with sevenparticular stars or constellations. Oromo months (stars/lunar phases) are Bittottessa (Iangulum), Camsa (Pleiades), Bufa (Aldebarran), Waxabajjii (Belletrix), Obora Gudda (Central Orion-Saiph), Obora Dikka (Sirius), Birra (full moon), Cikawa (gibbous moon), Sadasaa (quarter moon), Abrasa (large crescent), Ammaji (medium crescent), and Gurrandala (small crescent). [ 120 ]
[ edit ] Urbanization
View of the capital Addis Ababa from the Sheraton Hotel .
Population growth, migration, and urbanization are all straining both governments’ and ecosystems’ capacity to provide people with basicservices. [ 121 ] Urbanization has steadily been increasing in Ethiopia, with two periods of significantly rapid growth. First, in 1936–1941 during the Italian occupation of Mussolini’s fascist regime, and from 1967 to 1975 when the populations of urban centers tripled. [ 122 ] In 1936, Italy annexed Ethiopia, building infrastructure to connectmajor cities, and a dam providing power and water. [ 123 ] This along with the influx of Italiansand laborers was the major cause of rapid growth during this period.The second period of growth was from 1967 to 1975 when rural populations migrated to urban centers seeking work and better living conditions. [ 122 ] This pattern slowed after to the 1975 Land Reform program instituted by thegovernment provided incentives for people to stay in rural areas. As people moved from rural areas to the cities, there were fewer people to grow food for the population. The Land Reform Act was meant to increase agriculture since food production was not keeping up with population growth over the period of 1970–1983. [ 124 ] This program proliferated the formation of peasant associations, large villages based on agriculture. [ 124 ] The act did lead to an increase in food production, althoughthere is debate over the cause; it may be related to weather conditions more than the reform act. [ 124 ] Urban populations have continued to grow with an 8.1% increase from 1975 to 2000. [ 125 ]
[ edit ] Rural and urban life
Migration to urban areas is usually motivated by the hope of better lives. In peasant associations daily life is a struggle to survive. About 16% of the population in Ethiopia are living on less than 1 dollarper day (2008). Only 65% of rural households in Ethiopia consume the World Health Organization ‘s minimum standard of food per day (2,200 kilocalories), with 42% of children under 5 years old being underweight. [ 126 ] Most poor families (75%) share their sleeping quarters with livestock, and 40% of children sleep on the floor, where nighttime temperatures average 5 degrees Celsiusin the cold season. [ 126 ] The average family size issix or seven, living in a 30-square-meter mud and thatch hut, with less than two hectares of land to cultivate. [ 126 ] These living conditions are deplorable, but are the daily lives of peasant associations.
Street scene on Bole Road in Addis Ababa
The peasant associations face a cycleof poverty. Since the landholdings are so small,farmers cannot allow the land to lie fallow, which reduces soil fertility. [ 126 ] This land degradation reduces the production offodder for livestock, which causes low milk yields. [ 126 ] Since the community burns livestock manure as fuel, rather than plowing the nutrients back into the land, the crop production is reduced. [ 126 ] The low productivity of agriculture leads to inadequate incomes for farmers, hunger, malnutrition and disease.These unhealthy farmers have a hard time working the land and the productivity drops further. [ 126 ]
Although conditions are drastically better in cities, all of Ethiopia suffers from poverty , and poor sanitation . In the capital city of Addis Ababa , 55% of the population lives in slums. [ 123 ] Although there are some wealthy neighborhoods with mansions, most people make their houses using whatever materials are available, with walls made of mud or wood. Only 12% of homes have cement tiles or floors. [ 123 ] Sanitation is the most pressing need in thecity, with most of the population lacking access to waste treatment facilities. Thiscontributes to the spreadof illness through unhealthy water. [ 123 ]
Despite the living conditions in the cities, the people of Addis Ababaare much better off than people living in the peasant associations owing to their educational opportunities. Unlike ruralchildren, 69% of urban children are enrolled in primary school, and 35% ofthose eligible for secondary school attend. [ 123 ] Addis Ababa has its own university as well asmany other secondary schools. The literacy rateis 82%. [ 123 ]
Health is also much greater in the cities. Birthrates , infant mortality rates , and death rates are lower in the city than in rural areas owing to better access to education and hospitals. [ 123 ] Life expectancy is higher at 53, compared to 48 in rural areas. [ 123 ] Despite sanitation being a problem, use of improved water sources is also greater; 81% in cities compared to 11% in rural areas. [ 125 ] This encourages more people to migrate to the cities inhopes of better living conditions.
Many NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations) are working to solve this problem; however, most are far apart, uncoordinated, and working in isolation. [ 125 ] The Sub-Saharan Africa NGO Consortium is attempting to coordinateefforts among NGOs in Uganda , Kenya , Tanzania , Zambia , South Africa , Zimbabwe , Ethiopia, Sudan , Cameroon , the Democratic Republic of Congo , Senegal , Ivory Coast , Mali , Ghana , and Nigeria . [ 125 ]
[ edit ] Health
Main article: Health in Ethiopia
According to the head of the World Bank ‘s Global HIV/AIDS Program, Ethiopia has only 1 medical doctor per 100,000 people. [ 127 ] However, the World HealthOrganization ‘s 2006 WorldHealth Report gives a figure of 1936 physicians (for 2003), [ 128 ] which comes to about 2.6 per 100,000. Globalization is said to affect the country, with many educated professionals leaving Ethiopia for a better economic opportunity in the West .
The Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital in the capital Addis Ababa .
Ethiopia’s main health problems are said to be communicable diseases caused by poor sanitation and malnutrition. These problems are exacerbated by the shortage of trained manpower and health facilities. [ 129 ]
There are 119 hospitals (12 in Addis Ababa alone) and 412 health centers in Ethiopia. [ 130 ] Ethiopia has a relatively low average life expectancy of 45 years. [ 131 ] Infant mortality rates are relatively very high, as over 8% of infants die during or shortly after childbirth, [ 131 ] (althoughthis is a dramatic decrease from 16% in 1965) while birth-related complications such as obstetric fistula affect many of the nation’s women. HIV is also prevalent in the country.
The other major health problem in Ethiopia is spread of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). AIDS hasmainly affected poor communities and women,due to lack of health education, empowerment, awareness and lack of social well being. The government of Ethiopia and many private organizations like World health Organization (WHO), and the United Nations, are launching campaigns and are working aggressively to improve Ethiopia’s healthconditions and promote health awareness on AIDSand other communicable diseases (Dugassa, 2005). Many believe that sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea result from touching a stone after a female dog urinates on it and there isa general belief that these diseases are caused by bad spirits and supernatural causes. Others believe that eating the reproductive organs of a black goat will help expel the diseases from those same organ in their body (Kater, 2000). Ethiopia has high infant and maternal mortality rate. Only a minority of Ethiopians are born in hospitals; most of them are born in rural households. Those who are expected to give birthat home have elderly women serve as midwives assist with thedelivery (Kater, 2000) Theincrease in infant and maternal mortality rate…
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