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nextpreviousis believed to be due to lack of women’s involvement in householddecision- making, immunization and social capital (Fantahun, Berhane, Wall, Byass, & Hogberg, 2007). On the other hand, the “WHO estimates that a majority of maternal fatalities and disabilitiescould be prevented if deliveries were to take place at well-equipped health centers, with adequately trained staff”(Dorman et al., 2009, p. 622).
A man being tested for AIDS at an Ethiopian medical clinic.
The low availability of health care professionalswith modern medical training, together with lack of funds for medical services, leads to the preponderancy of less reliable traditional healers that use home-based therapies to heal common ailments. One medical practice thatis commonly practiced irrespective of religion or economic status is female genital cutting (FGC) or female circumcision, a procedureby which some of a woman’s external genitaltissue, such as the clitoral hood, the clitoris or labia, are removed. According to a study performed by the Population Reference Bureau, Ethiopia has a prevalence rate of 81% among women ages 35 to 39 and 62 percent among women ages 15–19. [ 132 ] Ethiopia’s 2005 Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) noted that the national prevalence rate is 74 percent among women ages 15–49. [ 133 ] The practice is almost universal in the regions ofDire Dawa, Somali and Afar; in the Oromo and Harari regions, more than 80% of girls and women undergo the procedure. FGC is least prevalent in the regions of Tigray and Gambela, where 29% and 27% of girls and women, respectively, are affected. [ 134 ] In 2004, the Ethiopian Government enacted a law against FGC. Female circumcision is a pre-marital custom mainly endemic to Northeast Africa and parts of the Near East that has its ultimate origins in Ancient Egypt . [ 135 ] [ 136 ] Encouraged by women in the community,it is primarily intended to deter promiscuity and to offer protection from assault. [ 137 ] About 76% of Ethiopia’s male population is also reportedly circumcised. [ 138 ]
The Government of the Federal Republic of Ethiopia is signatory to various international conventions and treaties that protect the rights ofwomen and children. Its constitution provides for the fundamental rights and freedoms for women. There is an attempt beingmade to raise the social and economic status of women through eliminating all legal and customary practices, which hinder women’s equal participation in society and undermine their social status.
[ edit ] Education
Main article: Education in Ethiopia
See also: List of universities and colleges in Ethiopia
Entrance to the AddisAbaba University .
Education in Ethiopia had been dominated by the Orthodox Church for manycenturies until secular education was adopted inthe early 1900s.The current system follows very similar school expansion schemes to the rural areas as the previous 1980s system with an addition of deeper regionalisation giving rural education in their own languages starting at the elementary level and with more budget allocated to the education sector. The sequence of general education in Ethiopia is six years of primary school, four years of lower secondary school and two years of higher secondary school. [ 139 ] in 2004 school enrollment was below that of many other African countries. [ 140 ] Half the population ofEthiopia is illiterate . [ 141 ]
[ edit ] Culture
Main article: Culture of Ethiopia
[ edit ] Cuisine
Typical Ethiopian cuisine: Injera (pancake-like bread) and several kinds of wat (stew).
Main article: Ethiopian cuisine
The best known Ethiopiancuisine consists of various vegetable or meat side dishes and entrées, usually a wat , or thick stew , served atop injera , a large sourdough flatbread made of teff flour. One does not eat with utensils, but instead uses injera to scoop up the entrées and side dishes. Chachabsa , Marka , Chukko and Dhanga are the most popular dish among the Oromos. Kitfo being originated from Gurage is one of the widely accepted and favorite food in Ethiopia.
Tihlo prepared from roasted barley flour is very popular in Amhara , Agame , and Awlaelo (Tigrai). Traditional Ethiopian cuisine employs no pork or shellfish of any kind, as they are forbidden in the Islamic , Jewish , and Ethiopian Orthodox Christian faiths. It is also very common to eat from the same dish in the center of the table with agroup of people.
[ edit ] Music
Main article: Music of Ethiopia
Mahmoud Ahmed , an Ethiopian singer of Gurage ancestry, in 2005
The music of Ethiopia is extremely diverse, with each of the country’s 80 ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds. Ethiopian music uses a distinct modal system that is pentatonic , with characteristically long intervals between some notes. As with many other aspects of Ethiopian culture and tradition, tastes in musicand lyrics are strongly linked with those in neighboring Eritrea , Somalia , Djibouti and Sudan . [ 142 ] [ 143 ] Traditional singing in Ethiopia presents diversestyles of polyphony ( heterophony , drone , imitation , counterpoint ).
[ edit ] Sport
Main article: Sport in Ethiopia
The main sports in Ethiopia are athletics and football . Ethiopian athletes have won many Olympic gold medals in track and field, particularly distance running. Haile Gebrselassie is a world-renowned marathon runner, having set the world record several times. Another sportsman, Kenenisa Bekele , is also a dominant runner, particularly in the 5,000 and 10,000 meters in which he holds the world records. Other notable Ethiopian athletes are Abebe Bikila , Mamo Wolde , Miruts Yifter , Derartu Tulu , Tirunesh Dibaba , Meseret Defar , Birehane Adare , Firehiwot_Dado , and Gelete Burka .
[ edit ] See also
Geography portal
Africa portal
Ethiopia portal
*. Outline of Ethiopia
*. Index of Ethiopia-related articles
*. Aethiopia (Classical Greek term)
*. Archaeology in Ethiopia
*. Link Ethiopia
[ edit ] Notes
[ edit ] References
Constructs such as ibid. , loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia’s style guide for footnotes , as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references ( quick guide ), or an abbreviated title. (November 2010)
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5. ^ Speaking after his signing the disputed treaty between Ethiopia and Italy in 1889, Emperor Menelik II made clear his position: “We cannot permit our integrity as a Christian and civilized nation to be questioned, nor the right to govern our empire in absolute independence. The Emperor of Ethiopia is a descendant of a dynasty that is 3,000 years old — a dynasty that during all that time has never submitted to an outsider. Ethiopia has never been conquered and she never shall be conquered by anyone.” Ethiopia Unbound: Studies In Race Emancipation – p. xxv by Joseph Ephraim Casely Hayford
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11. ^ Aksumite Ethiopia
12. ^ Paul B. Henze, Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia , 2005.
13. ^ United Nations Economic Commission for Africa UNECA
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20. ^ Ethiopia GDP purchasing power 2010: 86 billion
21. ^ Kenya GDP purchasing power 2010: 66 Billion
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29. ^ Meles Zenawi summit
30. ^ Histories, book 2, chapters 29 and 146; book 3 chapter 17 Odyssey, book 1, lines 22–23; book 4, line 84
31. ^ Histories, II, 29–30; III, 114; IV, 197
32. ^ Nat. Hist. 6.184–187; son of Hephaestus was also a general Greek epithet meaning”blacksmith”.
33. ^ India Sacra: hoc est suppetiae sacrae, ex vtraque India in Europam, pro … by Francisco Colin, p.5; see also Aethiopia
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36. ^ Cp. Ezekiel 29:10
37. ^ Acts 8:27
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41. ^ Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity . Edinburgh: University Press, 1991,pp.57.
42. ^ Taddesse Tamrat, Church and State in Ethiopia: 1270–1527 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972), pp. 5–13.
43. ^ ibid .
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45. ^ Munro-Hay, Aksum , pp. 57.
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47. ^ Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: A Civilization of Late Antiquity (Edinburgh: University Press, 1991), pp. 13.
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50. ^ Girma and Merid, Question of the Union of the Churches , pp. 25.
51. ^ Girma and Merid, Question of the Union of the Churches , pp. 45–52.
52. ^ Girma and Merid, Question of the Union of the Churches , pp. 91, 97–104.
53. ^ Girma and Merid, Question of the Union of the Churches, p. 105.
54. ^ van Donzel, Emeri,”Fasilädäs” in Siegbert von Uhlig, ed., Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha (Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005), p. 500.
55. ^ Pankhurst, Richard, The Ethiopian Royal Chronicles , (London:Oxford University Press, 1967), pp. 139–43.
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59. ^ Ibid; the people subjugated and incorporated were the Oromo, Sidama, Gurage, Wolayta and other groups. International Crisis Group. “Ethiopia: Ethnic Federalism and its Discontents” Africa Report No. 153, (4 September 2009) pp. 2
60. ^ Great Britain and Ethiopia 1897–1910: Competition for Empire Edward C. Keefer, International Journal of African Studies Vol. 6 No. 3 (1973) page 470
61. ^ International Crisis Group “Ethnic Federalism and its Discontents” pp. 2
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63. ^ Tekeste Negash. Eritrea and Ethiopia : The Federal Experience. (Uppsala, Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2005), 14
64. ^ Tekeste Negash. Eritrea and Ethiopia” pp 14 and ICG “Ethnic Federalism and its Discontents” pp 2; Italy lost over 4.600 nationals in this battle.
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79. ^ Constitution of Ethiopia – 8 December 1994
80. ^ The Economist Intelligence Unit’s Index of Democracy 2010
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